About the perfect consciousness of yogis through quotations of the Amanaska-yoga, the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Akulavīra-tantra

Gorakṣanātha in his Amanaska-yoga talks about four states (levels) of mind, two of which are associated with tamas and rajas, fluctuations of the mind. The other two are the state of mind in sattvaguṇa and the state of mind beyond any qualities or complete dissolution of the mind.

1) विश्लिष्टं viśliṣṭa – mind in the state of tamas
2) गतागत gatāgata – mind in the state of rajas
3) सुश्लिष्ट suśliṣṭa – mind in the state of sattva
4) सुलीन sulīna – mind beyond qualities, dissolved into Ātman

In the Caraka-saṃhitā, in the section dedicated to yoga, also emphasised that for yoga it is important to overcome the obscurations associated with guṇas of tamas and rajas:

मोक्षो रजस्तमोऽभावात् बलवत्कर्मसङ्क्षयात् ।
वियोगः सर्वसंयोगैरपुनर्भव उच्यते ॥१।१४२॥

In the liberated state, all desires are destroyed due to the absence of rajas and tamas. Thus, a person is finally and irrevocably freed from the bonds of the phenomenal world, from rebirth.

Below are excerpts from my translation of the Amanaska-yoga by Gorakṣanātha:

चतुर्विधा मनोऽवस्था विज्ञातव्या मनीषिभिः।
विश्लिष्टं च गतायातं सुश्लिष्टं च सुलीनकम् ॥ ९४ ॥

The wise know four states of mind: viśliṣṭa, gatāgata (gatāyata), suśliṣṭa and sulīna.

​​विश्लिष्टं तामसं प्रोक्तं राजसं च गतागतम्।
सुश्लिष्टं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तं सुलीनं गुणवर्जितम् ॥ ९५॥

Viśliṣṭa – tamasic, gatāgata – rajasic, suśliṣṭa – sattvic, sulīna – devoid of qualities.

विश्लिष्टं च गतायातं विकल्पविषयग्रहम् ।
सुश्लिष्टं च सुलीनं च विकल्पविषनाशनम् ॥ ९६ ॥

In viśliṣṭa and gatāgata there is the perception of fictitious objects (vikalpa-viṣaya), in suśliṣṭa and sulīna there is the destruction of the poison of vikalpas.

​ततोऽभ्यासनियोगेन निरालम्बो भवेद यदि।
तदा सरिसभूतानि (समरसभूतः ?) परमानन्द एव सः॥९७ ॥

If through the practice of yoga [a person] becomes independent, then he acquires naturalness and supreme bliss.

​अभ्यस्यतो मनः पूर्व विश्लिष्टं चलमुच्यते।
ततश्च निश्चलं किञ्चित् सानन्दं च गतागतम् ॥ ९८ ॥

During practice, the mind first moves, this state is called viśliṣṭa. Then the mind becomes still at times and filled with bliss – this is gatāgata.

​सानन्दं निश्चलं चेतः ततः सुश्लिष्टमुच्यते।
अतीव निश्चलीभूतं सानन्दं च सुलीनकम् ।। ९९ ॥

When the mind is in blissful stillness, this is suśliṣṭa. When it reaches final stillness and bliss, it is sulīna.

बभूव तस्य कर्माणि पापपुण्यस्य संक्षयः।
प्रयान्ति नैव लिम्पन्ति क्रियमाणानि सानुना ॥ १० ॥

The sinful and good karmas of a righteous ascetic disappear, and no matter what he does, the karmas pass by without staining him.

उत्तुङ्गः सहजानन्दः सदाभ्यासरतः स्वयम्।
सर्वसंकल्पसंत्यक्तः स विद्वान् कर्म संत्यजेत् ॥ १०१ ॥

The sage, permanently immersed in abhyāsa, abiding in the sublime bliss of naturalness and detached from all saṃkalpas, is freed from karma.

The last śloka says that this highest state is called sahajānanda, as it was previously spoken about in the ślokas 20 and 92. The same term is also used by Matsyendranāth in the Akulavīra-tantra, which indicates the importance of sahaja-avasthā among the Nāthas. The Akulavīra-tantra begins as following:

श्रीमच्छन्दपादकेभ्यो नमः ।
श्रीमीनसहजनन्दं स्वकीयाङ्गसमुद्भवम् ।
सर्वमाधारगम्भीरमचलं व्यपकं परम् ।

Salutations to the feet of Śrī Macchanda!
[Bow to] Śrī Mīna [nāth], the Bliss of the sahaja, born from his own body, the Whole, the Deepest Root, the Immovable, the All-pervading, the Supreme!

Interesting etymology of the term “karṇa” according to Yāska

Looking through Yāska’s work, I found another interesting point related to the interpretation of the word “karṇa” (कर्ण – an ear), which, in my opinion, very clearly indicates the rite of “ka-chira” – one of the the Nātha saṃskāras.

कर्णः कृन्ततेः। निकृत्तद्वारो भवति ।

Karṇa (an ear) comes from the root कृत् “krit” (to cut through), this is cutting a hole.

The rite of karṇa-vedhana (piercing the earlobes) is included in the Vedic saṃskāras, along with receiving the sacred thread, etc., so it is not surprising that there is such a definition here. However, Yāska further gives another version:

ऋच्छतेरित्याग्रायणः ।

“Ricchha” means “to move,” says Āgrāyaṇa (ācārya).

ऋच्छन्तीव खे उदगन्ताम् ।

Just as if there was movement in space (sound or nada).

In the śābar-mantra of the Nāthas, for the “kuṇḍala” (earrings) that are worn during such a ritual, it refers to the sound vibration “nada” and its connection with khecarīmudrā, but in the context of the fact that the sound “moves” in ākāśa (space). At the end it is said that above the ears of Gorakṣanāth is ākāśa, and below them is the earth, i.e. he is an image of the confluence of these polarities. He combines (mudrā) khecarī and bhūcarī (Śakti in the manifest world and in emptiness).

I would also like to note that the Sun and Moon are luminaries that constantly move in space, just like the Earth itself with the Moon, rotating around it and reflecting the light of the Sun. All these movements are time (kalā), which is sometimes translated as “death” in Sanskrit. Therefore, one who has gone beyond polarity and time comprehends the reality of immortality beyond the manifest and the unmanifest. The Gorakṣa-siddhānta-saṅgraha says that the true Brahman in this sense is beyond dvaita and advaita, bheda and abheda, etc., which Gorakṣanāth calls “Pakṣapāta-vinirmukta”.

Meaning of the name Gorakṣanātha

Definitions of the Gorakṣanātha’s name sometimes contain many references to its etymology, especially to the term “Go“. I want to share one of them, perhaps later I will give other quotes. Here is one of Yaskacharya’s works with my comments:

​सुषुम्णः सूर्यरश्मिश्चन्द्रमा गन्धर्वः। (Yajurveda, śloka 18.40)

The Moon is a Gandharva, representing the rays of the auspicious (suṣumṇā) Sun (Sūrya).

इत्यपि निगमो भवति । सोऽपि गौरुच्यते।

Following is also in the Vedic scriptures: It (light) is also called “Go”.

“अत्राह गोरमन्वत” इति तद् उपरिष्टाद् व्याख्यास्यामः।

This will also be discussed further “atrāha goramanvata” (quote from Rigveda 1.84.15)

सर्वेऽपि रश्मयः गावः उच्यन्ते।

Also, all rays of light are called “Go”.

And so, in etymology from the Vedas we get that “Go” or “Gau” is light or rays of light, and here there is a reference to the Yajurveda, where mentioned the name of suṣumṇā, which in Nāthyoga and Tantrism is used as the name of the main channel in our body. I believe that the mention of Sūrya and Chandra is not accidental here, which in Nāthyoga are further used as images of the iḍa and piṅgala channels surrounding the suṣumṇā channel.

The complete śloka of the Rigveda quoted by Yaska as following:

अत्राह॒ गोर॑मन्वत॒ नाम॒ त्वष्टु॑रपी॒च्य॑म्।
इ॒त्था च॒न्द्रम॑सो गृ॒हे ॥

In this world, they (ṛṣi) perceived the beautiful rays of the Sun in this way in the house of the Moon.

In that way, we are talking here about a certain concentration of light, accumulation between the Sun and the Moon, which are called “Go”. They are collected, that indicates on their protection (rakṣaṇa), i.e. what we know as “tapasya”, the generation of internal light or fire within. This reflects the essence of the practices of Gorakṣanātha. The Nāthas also associate Patra Devatā (Deity in the form of a vessel) with him. For example, we find similar ideas in Tantrism or even Kabbalah, about receiving or accumulating light in oneself (in the body). Light is also a reflection, an “imprint”, called mudrā. Thus, the earrings of the Nāthas, threaded into the space of the ears, are also symbols of the Sun and Moon in space, they are also called “mudrā”. This term is from the root “mud” – means “mixing”, the merging of higher consciousness and matter or spirit, which gives life and form to matter. The form is then given a meaning or mission in this world and becomes a form of life. Thus, Gorakṣanātha is a symbol of life, as opposed to death (mṛita), he is a symbol of immortality “amṛta”, the basis of which lies in the pure light of spirit (Ātman).

From the above it follows that Gorakṣanātha’s practices are aimed at the central channel (suṣumṇā) in our body, this is the gateway to the world of spirit and immortality, to the collecting together (samādhi) of consciousness and pranas.

What is said about Gorakṣanātha in the Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa

In the Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa (Adhyāya 33), we find a mention of Yogi Gorakṣanātha. Although this text is dedicated to Śrīvidyā, the manner in which it is described is interesting. I have made translation from Sanskrit with small notes, and although this kind of text requires a more detailed explanation, I will publish my translation here.

तस्य चोत्तरकोणेषु वायुलोको महाद्युतिः ।
तत्र वायुशरीराश्च सदानन्दमहोदयाः ॥ ६७॥

Also, in the Northwest corner with great radiance is the dimension of Vāyu.
Those who are there (ṛṣis and siddhas) also have bodies like Vāyu (power ones) and great eternal bliss is revealed in them.

सिद्धा दिव्यर्षयश्चैव पवनाभ्यासिनोऽपरे ।
गोरक्षप्रमुखाश्चान्ये योगिनो योगतत्पराः ॥ ६८॥

Divine ṛṣis and siddhas, who practice methods associated with the wind (pranayama) and other yogis, devotees of the yoga path, among whom the main one is Gorakṣanātha.

एतैः सह महासत्त्वस्तत्र श्रीमारुतेश्वरः ।
सर्वथा भिन्नमूर्तिश्च वर्तते कुम्भसम्भव ॥ ६९॥

There, along with them, with the great beings, is Māruteśvara (Gorakṣa).
O, born from a jar (“Patra Devatā” among the Nāthas, or Gorakṣanātha), also present in many forms.

इडा च पिङ्गला चैव सुषुम्णा तस्य शक्तयः ।
तिस्रो मारुतनाथस्य सदा मधुमदालसाः ॥ ७०॥

This lord of the winds, Mārutnātha, has three Śaktis in the form of iḍā, piṅgala and suṣumṇā, which reside in a heady eternal peace.

ध्वजहस्तो मृगवरे वाहने महति स्थितः ।
ललितायजनध्यानक्रमपूजनतत्परः ॥ ७१॥

He holds a flag (symbol of Alakh-nirañjan) in his hand, while sitting on an antelope (symbol of prāṇa). He successively performs dhyāna, yājña and pūjā to the goddess Lalita (Yogamāyā Bālasundarī among the Nāths).

आनन्दपूरिताङ्गीभिरन्याभिः शक्तिभिर्वृतः ।
स मारुतेश्वरः श्रीमान्सदा जपति चक्रिणीम् ॥ ७२॥

He is surrounded by other Śaktis (goddesses), their parts (it can be their bodies or aspects in the form of yoginīs), overflowing with bliss. That glorious Māruteśvara always repeats the mantra to the Queen of the Śrīyantra chakras (Tripurasundarī).

तेन सत्त्वेन कल्पान्ते त्रैलोक्यं सचराचरम् ।
परागमयतां नीत्वा विनोदयति तत्क्षणात् ॥ ७३॥

Through his essence, at the end of a kalpa, he absorbs all three worlds, everything movable and immovable, remaining by himself in that delightful moment.

तस्य सत्त्वस्य सिद्ध्यर्थं तामेव ललितेश्वरीम् ।
पूजयन्भावयन्नास्ते सर्वाभरणभूषितः ॥ ७४॥

For the perfections of that essence, Laliteshwari, he worships her with manifest feeling and all kinds of ornaments.

Smile of Buddha and Gorakṣanāth

If you look at the images of Buddha and Gorakṣanāth, you will notice slight smiles on their faces. But it’s not some super blissful appearance. I have noticed that many people like bajans and kirtans, as is the case in many bhakti schools or in the inaccurate understanding of some tantric streams, because there is an excess of “ānanda” there. For many people such ānanda and excessive joy seems to me to be an attempt to displace the presence of pain that this life is full of. However, this often leads to a person not noticing the external reality. But, if your bliss is moderate, like a light smouldering fire in the dhuna, then you do not run away from life and are not consumed by it, you are in contact with it as if “gliding”. That is, you calmly perceive the reality of life in a moderately “positive” state, which awakens wisdom in you.

Meaning of Ādeś salutation

There is its own Sūkṣma-veda in the Nātha Sampradāya, which is called the Gorakh Sabadī. There is also the Gorakṣopaniṣad and analogues of Vedanta (ātma-jñāna, brahma-jñāna), the Gorakh Gītā, the Gorakh Purāṇa and the Gorakh Tantra. Of course, all of this often differs from what most people see in it, and although essentially it is one whole, it should be better discussed separately. There is also its own nirukta – the interpretation of terms. For instance, according to nirukta, a term ‘ādeś‘ means the following:

आदेश नाम योग – योगेश्वरों का, नाम सत रुप नाथों का, आदेश नाम पूर्ण सिद्धों का आदेश नाम आत्मा, परमात्माऔर जीवात्मा की एकता का । आदेश नाम एक अन्तर आत्मा से दूजा अन्तर आत्मा में योग बनया ज्योति स्वरुप आत्मा को नमस्कार । आदेश नाम अद्वैत आत्मा आदेश नाम निर्गुण निराकार अविनाशी आत्मा को इतना आदेश शब्द निरुक्त सम्पूर्ण भया श्री नाथ जी गुरूजी को आदेश ।

Ādeś is the name of the Lords of yoga and yoga itself, the true state of the Nāthas. Ādeś is the name of realised siddhas, of the unity of ātma (an individual soul as it is), paramātma (an omnipresent soul) and jivātma (a soul incarnated in a body). Ādeś is the name of the unity of a soul (within a person) with another soul, reverence for the luminous nature of the soul. Ādeś is the name of the non-dual ātman, which is beyond qualities, formless and indestructible. This is the full interpretation of the term ‘ādeś’. May there be respect and will (teaching) of Śrī Nātha ji Guruji!

However, according to the Machhindra Gorakh Bodh (6), we see the following explanation of the term ‘ādeś‘:

मछिंद्र: अवधू आदेस का अनुषम उपदेस, सुंनि का निरंतर बास ।
सबद का परचा गुरु कथंत मछिन्द्र नाथ ।

Oh disciple, the guidance (upadeśa) in the immeasurable ‘ādeś’ transmission (anusham), where the infinity (nirantar) lives (vāsa) in the emptiness (śūnya). Speech is a manifestation of the guru (śabd kā paricaya guru) (obviously here is the connection of the guru with vāgbhava bīja “aiṃ”), This is what guru Matsyendranāth says.

That is, ādeś or, in Sanskrit, ādeśa means a certain transmission from a guru to a disciple or from a deity to a practitioner in a special form, where an instruction and the highest essence, or the meaning are inseparable. That is the subtle knowledge which guru reveals in a student, which is, in fact, the yogic experience. Since that is not an ordinary knowledge obtained in universities, it is rather revealed in a meditative state, in a state of utmost peace of mind and feelings, so this transmission may often be a non-verbal one. It frequently occurs even in silence between some yogis or gurus and those who receives śaktipāt from them. This is a relationship of a kind that a student understands a guru giving only a small hint, half the words, on a deeply intuitive level. As a rule, that is accompanied by the deep psychophysical transformation of the student’s nature.

We can find this term in other sources, for example, in Vedanta, in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (2.3.6):

अथात आदेशो ‘नेति नेति’।

So, the instruction, which is not this (and) not that.
(That is, the truth is outside of the scope of discursive thinking, the nature of the ātman is beyond any description).

Probably, this is where the origin of the Nāthas‘ focus on freedom from the inadequacy of duality or even non-duality, from any extreme, which is destructive and disharmonious comes from.

Thus, ādeś (or ādeśa) means the transfer of essential knowledge, for the sake of the deep spiritual transformation, where a disciple, being in a state of deep respect and utmost attentiveness, both in relation to himself and the guru, discovers the silent truth. We may call it the highest form of the mystical experience, leading to the total transformation, the transformation from a person to a God-man. This is the state of yoga in its essential, unified form and also in its many basic aspects, therefore there could be a connection with any kind of traditional yoga or religious practices here.

Many may consider the greeting ‘Ādeś!‘ among nāthas as an analogue to the well-known ‘namaste‘. ‘Namah‘ – means ‘respect’ and ‘te‘ – means ‘you’. However, as I see it, ‘ādeś‘ has a deeper meaning, it is rather the very essence of ‘namaste‘. By namaste, you honor a guru or a deity or someone you have respect for. It is kind of a pūjā. But why a pūjā is performed? It is performed for the sake of the inclusion in the nature of the divine and the descent of prasādam or śaktipāt. Here ādeś is, rather, the second stage, following the namaste, it is not just a pūjā as an action, but it is a successful performance. Such efficiency actually means staying in goodness, sometimes it can reveal some siddhis as accompanying side effects. Although the siddhis are definite indicators, in this case, it is not them that matters, but the state of siddha puruṣa, a pure perfect being. Whatever the pūjās are performed: vedic, purāṇic, tantric (including non-standard ones, like pañchamakāras), none of them have any meaning if there is no pure grace (prasādam). Therefore, ādeś, for a yogin, is a transforming inner spiritual purity and knowledge, it is more important than any, even the most seemingly exclusive religious techniques. This is not to say that they are good or bad, they may or may not work, as for example, a computer may be useful when it is connected to the Internet and, moreover, to electricity. In the same way, simply put, there is ādeś, in relation to all types of spiritual techniques and systems.

The Amṛtasiddhi as a Nātha text

Not long ago student of mine sent me a curious article by Kurtis R. Schaeffer The Attainment of immortality: from Nāthas in India to buddhists in Tibet. It is dedicated to a text, which James Mallinson identified as ‘buddhist one’, which is, in my opinion, not quite correct. I also find his another claim, when during an online interview he said that the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā is the Vīraśaiva text only because Allama Prabhudeva is mentioned there, to be also incorrect. An attempt to take only one name related to Vīraśaivism from a huge number of listed names, ignoring all the others, and attribute the whole text to Vīraśaiva, seems very strange to me. Especially when the text itself is quite distant from the main doctrine of Vīraśaivism and its goals. The same thing is with the text Amṛtasiddhi, a conclusion that this is a Buddhist text is based on the fact that it contains several Buddhist elements, at the same time completely ignoring the huge number of Śaiva elements. This text is more Nātha related, and Virūpakṣanāth (one of the famous Nāthas) could add some elements from Buddhism there. I believe that texts of this kind should be judged primarily by the number of prevailing elements of a particular tradition. And it is obvious there, that the elements of Nāthism are dominant. But for me, even without reading the article, it is clear that the text is not Buddhist, not least because there was the Mahāmudrā practice in Buddhism in those times and it was not in the form of haṭha-yoga practice. All Vajrayāna Buddhists perfectly understand what it is. So what was the point in calling completely different levels of practice in Vajrayāna with the same term? Here is another example from the Amṛtasiddhi:

म्रियन्ते मेरुवेधेन  ब्रह्माद्या देवता ध्रुवम्
आदौ संजायते क्षिप्रं वेधो ऽयं ब्रह्मग्रन्थितः॥

mriyante meruvedhena  brahmādyā devatā dhruvam 
ādau saṃjāyate kṣipraṃ vedho ‘yaṃ brahmagranthitaḥ॥

By piercing Meru (suṣumnā with prāṇa), Brahma and other Gods are getting killed.
First, this (prāṇa) quickly pierces the Brahma-granthi (Brahma knot).

ब्रह्मग्रन्थिं ततो भित्त्वा विष्णुग्रन्थिं भिनत्यसौ
विष्णुग्रन्थिं ततो भित्त्वा रुद्रग्रन्थिं भिनत्यसौ ॥

brahmagranthiṃ tato bhittvā viṣṇugranthiṃ bhinatyasau
viṣṇugranthiṃ tato bhittvā rudragranthiṃ bhinatyasau॥

Thus, when the Brahma-granthi is pierced, the Viṣṇu-granthi (Viṣṇu knot) is pierced.
When the Viṣṇu-granthi is pierced, the Rudra-granthi (Rudra knot) is pierced.

रुद्रग्रन्थिं ततो भित्त्वा छित्वा मोहमयीं लताम्
उद् घाटयत्ययं  वायुर्ब्रह्मद्वारं सुगोपितम् ॥

rudragranthiṃ tato bhittvā chitvā mohamayīṃ latām 
ud ghāṭayatyayaṃ  vāyurbrahmadvāraṃ sugopitam ॥

Thus, piercing the Rudra-granthi, the “vines of illusion” (the intricacies of Māyā) are getting cut off. Further, ascending upward, Vāyu (air) penetrates into the super secret, Brahmadvāra (the door of Brahma).

The question is, what is so ‘Buddhist’ in these images of Purāṇic Devatās, and where in Buddhism such names of granthas are being mentioned?

There are also many other arguments in the article, for example, mentions of jīvanmukti, when a practitioner is likened to Śiva in yogic realisation etc. That is why I consider the statement of attribution of the text to Buddhism to be incorrect. Of course, some borrowings could come to Indian yoga or tantra from Buddhism, but we also have to consider the main goals of different sampradāyas. For instance, we cannot call Pancharātra ‘a yogic tradition’, if it is in fact a Vaiṣṇava bhakti oriented sect full of its specific karmakāṇḍa etc. If I take, let’s say, Yogi Bhajan’s Kundalini-yoga and claim that it belongs to a Sikh tradition, it will be an incorrect statement. Even if you find a Sikh lineage Sant Mat, where meditation on light and sound is practiced, it doesn’t make it the main practice of the whole tradition. And again, we cannot conclude from this that it is the rationale for what Yogi Bhajan developed while living in California. Just as it is not entirely accurate to say that the Ashtanga Vinyasa style is a ‘tradition’, it is more correct to say that it is rather a modern yoga style. It could be called a tradition being spread in the West on the condition Iyengar or Pattabhi Jois would have transmitted the same sacred threads (janeū), which they had from their Gurus – to their students. Which didn’t happen, and most likely couldn’t have happened. But, if this did happen, I doubt that such disciples would have the same discipline and practice that they exercise on masse today. And although these teachers were good innovators, we should not confuse a style and gymnastic exercises with dīkṣā, discipleship, nitya sādhanā and etc. For those who want to seriously understand these things, I highly recommend taking these factors into account, although there are actually a lot of them.

One more meaning of the Gorakṣanātha’s name

The name Gorakṣanātha in Sanskrit or its derivative Gorakhnāth in Hindi, if translated literally, will not carry much meaning. It could literally be translated as: rakṣa (a protector) and go (of cows). But, if you meet some Indians, who have heard about Gorakṣanātha and associated him with yoga, most likely they will explain go as senses. Thus, many translate it as “one, who protects the senses or controls the senses,” which is often interpreted as the practice of pratyāhāra, etc. Of course, the control of indriyas, redirection of prāṇa and perception of ātman within oneself are very important in yoga. However, while reading Yāska’s Nirukta and Śrī Aurobindo’s most interesting works, the Secret of the Veda, I found an even deeper meaning of the term goŚrī Aurobindo gives many references to the Rig Veda, where the term go (like the sun rays) refers to the Absolute as a whole. Yāska says in Nirukta:

आदित्योऽपि गौरुच्यते |
ādityo’pi gaurucyate |

The sun is also called ‘go’.

In further explanation, there is a quotation of the hymn from the Yajur Veda (adhyāya 18 / 40) containing suṣumṇa:

सुषुम्णः सूर्यरश्मिश्चन्द्रमा गन्धर्वस्तस्य नक्षत्राण्यप्सरसो भेकुरयो |
suṣumṇaḥ sūryaraśmiścandramā gandharvastasya nakṣatrāṇyapsaraso bhekurayo |

Suṣumṇa, whose moonbeams are like the sun, is gandharva playing with nakṣatras, who are āpsaras.

In the other ślokas of this hymn, gandharva is the wind and his āpsaras are the waters, etc. Different elements are divided into male and female poles through the images of the ganharva and āpsaras.

Interestingly,Yāska connects the rays of suṣumṇa with go, this is also found in other parts of his Nirukta. Aurobindo in his Secret of the Veda, has many references to the Rig Veda as well, where cows can be understood to mean the light of the sun, ātman and Absolute in general. Indeed, if you look in the dictionaries, then go can mean both the sun and the moon, and light as such. Accordingly, Gorakṣanātha can be perceived as one, who unites (yoga) the power of ha (sun) and ṭha (moon) within suṣumṇa. The veneration of Śiva Gorakṣanātha awakens suṣumṇa, unites opposites, He is the patron saint of this path.