Symbolism of yoni-mudra in yoga

There is a practice in yoga in which jñānendriyas are overlapped with the fingers of both hands, it is called yoni-mudrā. A yogi enters into pratyāhāra and immerses into  himself through this practice. The term ‘yoni‘ comes from the root yu, which may indicate several qualities. The first one from the adādiḥ class, means miśraṇa (join together), and the second from the kryādiḥ class, meaning bandhana (binding). That is something that connects male and female fluids, that holds and carries the fetus. The term ‘mudrā‘ also has a similar meaning, from the root mud, which happens in two classes: the first is curādiḥ class, meaning saṃsarga (mixing, combining) and the second is the bhvādiḥ class, meaning harṣa (rejoicing). This is what connects the two polarities: consciousness (meaning) and the object that displays it, as well as something that gives joy. Thus, any practice that connects you with the essence and brings joy can be considered as mudrā, it can be a mantra, a dhyāna, even āsana and prāṇāyāma, being directed to your essential predestination.

In India there is such a famous place of the Goddess as Kāmākhyā-pīṭha, where the Goddess is revered in the form of a female genital organ (yoni). All her images in the form of ten Mahāvidiyās, including the central place – the Kāmākhyā temple, have sanctuaries that are on the surface of the earth and below them, in the form of caves, that are underground. Underground is the bosom of the Mother Goddess, the bosom is considered as the essence of any Goddess, in many yantras she is presented in the form of a bindu and a triangle in the center. If you go into the main temple of Kāmākhyā, going down the stairs, you will plunge into the darkness with only the dim light of the lamps. Merging into the darkness, you are going through the experience of death, as if leaving the sanctuary, you are kind of returning to life, already updated. All the essential elements of these tantric symbols, in the form of veneration of yoni (yoni-pūjā) are also reflected in yoga practice. You are immersed in yourself during that practice, you recognise the nature of the Mother Goddess in your body in the form of Kuṇḍalinī-śakti. Also, being renewed, you will know the true self as ātman. The Mātṛkābheda-tantra says “janmasthānaṃ mahāyantraṃ” that the female reproductive organ is the Great Yantra, although the term janmasthāna can also be associated with the phallic symbol. In fact, yoni and liṅgam both are a manifestation of the bindu, also of one triangle, but only they change to male or female symbols when turned over. This is what the Bhagavad Gītā says about yoni:

सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः सम्भवन्ति याः।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता ।।14.4।।

sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ sambhavanti yāḥ। 
tāsāṃ brahma mahadyonirahaṃ bījapradaḥ pitā ।।14.4।।

O Kaunteya, in whatever (yāḥ) yoni (sarvayoniṣu) entities (mūrtayaḥ) do not appear (sambhavanti), the yoni for them is the Great Brahman (tāsāṃ brahma mahat yoniḥ), while I am the Father (pitā) giving (pradaḥ) seed (bīja).

This śloka from the Gītā identifies the yoni with the Supreme Brahman. From the foregoing, it can be summarised that yogic mudra is a tantric symbol, it gives knowledge of birth and death (frees from rebirth, i.e. grants mukti), leads to the merging of the soul with the God (Brahman).

How does the whole Sanskrit alphabet come from praṇava?

One example is the text Āgamarahasyam (Aṣṭamaḥ paṭalaḥ, 449 – 462), according to which praṇava is divided into five mātras: म् and two more – bindu (which is the concentration of sound vibration) and nāda (the spreading of this subtle concentration). Further, each of these mātras is split into a certain number of energy rays (kalā), each of these rays is associated with one or another Sanskrit varṇa, also this five appears in the form of pañcakāraṇeśvara, the five manifestations of Śiva (Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Rudra, Īśvara and Sadāśiva). According to the Candrajñānāgamaḥ and some other texts, five syllables of the mantraNamaḥ Śivāya’ and five kāraṇeśvaras associated with them appear from these five mātras. Let’s analyse this in detail.

The first mātra / a is connected with Brahmā, the syllable of the pañcākṣara mantra / na and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

कं kaṃ sṛṣṭi – the power of creation, खं khaṃ ṛddhi – the power of development, गं gaṃ smṛti – the power of memory, घं ghaṃ medhā – wisdom, ङं ṅaṃ kānti – brilliance, चं caṃ lakṣmī – success in achieving the goal, छं chaṃ dyuti – glow, जं jaṃ sthirā – stability, झं jhaṃ sthiti – existence, ञं ñaṃ siddhi – perfection.

The second mātra / u is connected with Viṣṇu, the syllable of the pañcākṣara mantra : / maḥ and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

टं ṭaṃ jarā – the power of longevity, ठं ṭhaṃ naṃpālinī – the power of protection, डं ḍaṃ śānti – peace, ढं ḍhaṃ aiśvari – control, णं ṇaṃ rati – pleasure, तं taṃ kāmikā – passion, थं thaṃ varadā – power to bestow boon,

दं daṃ hlādinī – happiness, धं dhaṃ prīti – attractiveness, नं naṃ dīrghā – prevalence.

The third mātra म् / m is connected with Rudra, the syllable of pañcākṣara शि / śi and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

पं paṃ tīkṣā – sharpness, फं phaṃ raudrī – ferociousness of expression, बं baṃ bhayā – power to instil fear, भं bhaṃ nidrā – rest in a dream, मं maṃ tandrā – state of coma, यं yaṃ kṣut – hunger, रं raṃ krodhinī – power of anger laṃ kriyā – movement, वं vaṃ utkārī – rise, शं śaṃ mṛtyu – death.

The fourth mātra is associated with bindu and with Īśvara, the syllable of pañcākṣara वा / , as well as four kalās, which are manifested in the colour of energies, and akṣaras:

षं ṣaṃ pītā – yellow, सं saṃ śvetā – white, हं haṃ kṣaṃaruṇā – red, क्षं kṣaṃ asitā – dark.

The fifth mātra is associated with nāda and Sadāśiva, the syllable of pañcākṣara / ya and the following 16 kalās and akṣaras:

अं aṃ nivṛtti – cessation of activities, आं āṃ pratiṣṭhā – establishment, इं iṃ vidyā – knowledge, ईं īṃ śānti – peace, उं uṃ indhikā – substance for sacrifice, ऊं ūṃ dīpikā – light, ऋं ṛṃ recikā – devastation, ऋृं ṛṛṃ mocikā – liberation, लृं lṛṃ parā – transcendence, लॄं lṝṃ sūkṣmā – subtlety, एं eṃ sūkṣmāmṛtā – subtle, not affected by death, ऐं aiṃ jñānāmṛtā – cognition of immortality, ओं oṃ āpyāyanī – fullness, अं aṃ vyomarūpā – emptiness, अः aḥ anantā – lack of limit (infinity).

Reflections on the origin of the name of the three bandhas

Why do the three famous bandhas, that are often used in prāṇāyāma, have the following names: jālandhara-bandhauḍḍiyāna-bandhamūla-bandha?

Personally, I believe that these names in haṭhayoga, like many other things, could come from tantrism. The aim of these bandhas in yoga is to unite the prāṇas within the suṣumṇā channel, which leads to the control of prāṇa and consciousness (i.e. contemplation). There are four famous śaktipīṭhas in tantrism, such as kāmarūpājālandharauḍḍiyāna and pūrṇāgiri. Many tantras describe them not only as geographical places in India and as those that are in the central triangle of yantras, but also as located in our body, in various cakras. For example, kāmarūpā, which is associated with Satī’s yoni (one of the main places for tantra practitioners) is located in Guwahati of Assam State. In a way, this is the main place for tantrikas and śaktas, so when we say ‘mūla‘, we can translate this as “root” and as “main.” According to Yoga-cūḍāmaṇyupaniṣad (7), Gorakṣa-śatakam (10), Sidhda-sidhdānta-padhdati (2-1) and a number of other texts, this pīṭha in our body is in the area of ​​mūlādhāra-cakra. This fully corresponds to what associated with mūla-bandha.

Take other examples with pithas, for example, in Kaulajñānanirṇaya (8.20-22) jālandhara-pīṭha is located in the root cakra, although according to the SSP, it is located in the head region. In any case, jālandhara-bandha is what directs upward the flow of prāṇa going into the cakras, like uḍḍiyāna-bandha, which means the movement of prāṇa in suṣumṇā and upwards. Obviously, it is connected with uḍḍiyāna-pīṭha, regardless of the fact that different texts have it in different ways. This special pīṭha in tantrism, the center of any yantra, is also venerated by the Gurus, from whom comes the tradition in which this practice is used. For Buddhists, this is also a very significant place where many great masters came from. If we talk about ājñā-cakra, then it means “following the will of the Guru“, his transmission. But, for this we must direct ourselves from the bottom up to him. This is the dissolution of their lower nature in the Divine, thereby sublimating this nature. Of course, when we do uḍḍiyāna-bandha, we work on the entire abdomen, lifting prāṇa up through suṣumṇā. The fourth, pūrṇāgiri-pīṭha, is also located differently according to different texts, somewhere in the crown of the head, somewhere in anāhata-cakra, etc. It means the completeness arising from the fusion of different energies. Usually, pīṭhas in tantrism, as sacred places in India, are associated with the performance of some sacred processes in our body. If we say this in relation to yoga, then our fragmented, imperfect vital energy (asiddha-prāṇa) becomes perfect (siddha-prāṇa) when it makes a “pilgrimage” to different areas within suṣumṇā. Thus, we are immersed in dhyāna within ourselves.