Vajrolī in Buddhism and Indian traditions

Recently, one of my students asked me a question, “Is it true that there is semen retention in Vajrayana (in the practice of karmamudrā of the Completion stage), but is it not so in Indian tantras?”

First of all, I think that it is wrong to sacrifice a human nature to religious corporations, dividing it into Tibetan and Indian one. There is a tendency to think that if you are a Tibetan, you can retain semen, and if you are an Indian, the practice must necessarily be different. The  retention  of ejaculation in the practice of maithuna or karmamudrā is an allegory. In Indian kaulācāra, this kind of practices implies ejaculation, as an analogue of pūrṇāhuti in agnihotra. After which, this substance is mixed with wine and then used in pūjā. There is a lot of evidences of that fact, for example, in the Guhyasamāja-tantra:

विण्मूत्रशुक्ररक्तादीन् देवतानां निवेदयेत्।
एवं तुष्यन्ति सम्बुद्धाः बोधिसत्त्वा महाशयाः॥२१॥

viṇmūtraśukraraktādīn devatānāṃ nivedayet।
evaṃ tuṣyanti sambuddhāḥ bodhisattvā mahāśayāḥ ॥21॥

It is necessary to offer the secretion: urine, semen, female bodily fluids and offer them to the Deities. Thus, it will satisfy the great awakened ones, buddhas and bodhisattvas.

Prior to that, there is a recommendation to practice intercourse with a beautiful young woman. In order, for example, to offer semen in pūjā, it is obvious that there must be present a finalised ritual of maithuna. And there is quite a bit of such recommendations in Vajrayana. These kinds of transgressions in Vajrayana, which seems to be full of  savagery to the common man, in fact, are not much different from saptamakaras in aghora, which took a lot from traditions like kāpālikas.

If you read a description of vajrolī or amarolī in the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā, you will see that there is a recommendation to mix the released semen with ash and apply it as a tilaka. That is, it means that ash is a symbol of amṛta, as well as semen. It says of the same principles as in the description from the Guhyasamāja-tantra and other Buddhist texts. Here is a very similar fragment from the Yoni-tantra:

भक्त्या द्रव्यं जपेन्मन्त्रं जप्त्वा मैथुनमाचरेत् शु्क्तोत्सरणकाले च शृ्णु पार्वति सुन्दरि
योनितत्त्वं समादाय तिलकं क्रियते यदि शतजन्मावर्ज्जितं पापं तत्क्षणादेव नश्यति ॥20-21॥

bhaktyā dravyaṃ japenmantraṃ japtvā maithunamācaret 
śuktotsaraṇakāle ca śṛṇu pārvati sundari
yonitattvaṃ samādāya tilakaṃ kriyate yadi
śatajanmāvarjjitaṃ pāpaṃ tatkṣaṇādeva naśyati ॥20-21॥

The sādhaka should chant the mantra and enjoy the ‘substances’ during the practice of maithuna. Listen, beautiful Parvatī, if a sādhaka makes himself a tilaka with ‘yoni fluids’ after an orgasm, then he will instantly forsake all the sins associated with a hundred births. (20-21)

The requirement given here is very similar to the one from the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. Probably, the goal here is not to retain semen so that there is no ejaculation at all. If the process is contemplative, then such a suspension or extension of the act occurs naturally. And the practitioner accomplishes that not by themselves and not because their ego wants it, like they can feed it by being ‘good technicians’. Here, the Goddess also controls the process through you. And the prolongation of the act is needed more in order to satisfy the Goddess in a woman, so she will bestow siddhi through her satisfaction. And at the end of the ritual, pūrṇāhuti is being done in the form of an orgasm. A prolongation of the act may occur due to the desire to satisfy the Divine. But not at all in order to demonstrate some kind of  ‘athletic abilities’ to stretch time, in which many people mistakenly believe. Each practice has a main task that must not be forgotten, otherwise it loses its true purpose and value, no matter how exclusive the technique may look. As we can see, ūrdhvaretā could be understood as  retracting substances back, but that is not by drawing them back into the genitals. That could be, for instance, the communion in the form of tilaka (as ūrdhva is the head area), and so on. And the most important thing is what happens on a psychic level, psychic vibes are significant. For a yogin who understands the essence of this practice, the physical side may be less relevant. They can perceive the sexual energy of life and flowering in their essence. Therefore, for some, a yogic practice is simply the essence of such ceremonies, even without their external implementation.

Sohaṃ mantra and mātṝkā

I have already quoted from the Prapañcasāra-tantra (4.21). It says that the praṇavaOṃ’ comes from the mantrasohaṃ’. If there is no ‘sa’ and ‘ha’ in it, then ‘o’ remains, and with the bindu we get ‘Oṃ’.

सकारं च हकारं च लोपयित्वा प्रयोजयेत्।
संधिं वै पूर्वरूपाख्यं ततोऽसौ प्रणवो भवेत् ।।४.२१।।

sakāraṃ ca hakāraṃ ca lopayitvā prayojayet।
saṃdhiṃ vai pūrvarūpākhyaṃ tato’sau praṇavo bhavet ।।4.21।।

According to the pūrva-rūpa saṁdhi rule, removing ‘sa’ and also ‘ha’, definitely, one should definitely get that praṇava (Oṃ) from there.

The mantra ‘Oṃ’ is called ‘para-praṇava’. That means it is primordial, it is identified with the spontaneously arising vibration (anāhata). There are many interpretations of this mantra and one of them is that the spelling ॐ is a combination of three mātrā  अ – उ – म् / a – u – m. Sometimes you can find other spellings, for example ओँ / om̐, which could be explained by grammar rules, according to which ओ / o is a combination of syllables अ – उ / a – u. So relatively speaking, we can say that all vowels fall into the range from अ / a to म् / m, which could also shift to anusvāra. According to the Parā-trīṃśikā-vivaraṇa, all vowels are associated with Śiva-tattva, and all consonants are associated with Śakti and all manifestations that emerge due to it (the remaining 35 tattvas). Sanskrit consonants are connected with all other tattvas, they end with ह / ha. Together, through the union of Śiva and Śakti, by means of kāma-kalā, they are aparapraṇava, known as अहं ‘aham’, which is the symbol of kāma-kalā.

Thus, aham is an abbreviation, in which all akṣaras of the Sanskrit alphabet and all 36 tattvas are contained. That is, ‘aham’ is Śiva himself with his Śakti and ‘viśva’ – all manifestations emerging from them, which are always contained in them at any stage of their unfolding. Saying ‘aham’ (Self), we kind of reveal the experience of ourselves as the whole universe, what both nāthas and tantrikas call piṇḍabrahmāṇḍa-vada (the connection of microcosm and macrocosm). Different worlds of outer space are represented in our body, mainly in cakras.

So, we have two praṇavas, ‘para’ – is directly ‘Oṃ’, originating from sohaṃ, this is Śiva himself and the vowels of Śakti. And then, from the parapraṇava, the aparapraṇava manifests, in which the Sanskrit consonants and the remaining 35 tattvas unfold. When we repeat ‘sohaṃ’, or rather, we experience this phenomenon comprehensively, then we feel the identity of ourselves – अहं ‘aham’ with सः ‘sah’ (he). It can be associated with any deity or mantra associated with it. And ultimately, any mantra should lead to that experience, which is known as ‘ajapa-japa’.

There is also an inverted version of this mantra, known as हंसः ‘haṃsaḥ’. If translated literally, it means ‘swan’. Śaṅkara identifies a swan with the principle of the Sun, since it is a source of prāṇa, and the Sun, like a swan, moves through the sky. The Sun can touch a surface of the earth, its rays glide over it. The Sun rises and disappears with the sunset, and in the same way a swan can submerge under water and stay there, to be on and above water. If ‘sohaṃ’ is paramātmā, then ‘haṃsa’ is also a symbol of omnipresence, but rather, like ‘ātman’ (from the root ‘at’ – to move and spread, that is, ātman abides in everything). There is one famous mantra which is used in tantrism sometimes. It is quoted in the earliest Kaṭhopaniṣad, but initially it is found in the Rigveda, in the hymn to Dadhikar (the Sun).

The Rigveda (Maṇḍala 4.40.5)

हं॒सः शु॑चि॒षद्वसु॑रंतरिक्ष॒सद्धोता॑ वेदि॒षदति॑थिर्दुरोण॒सत् ।
नृ॒षद्व॑र॒सदृ॑त॒सद्व्यो॑म॒सद॒ब्जा गो॒जा ऋ॑त॒जा अ॑द्रि॒जा ऋ॒तं ॥

The swan [the Sun], which abides (षद् / ṣad) in the clear sky (शुचि / śuci), abides in air (वसु / vasu), in the middle atmosphere (अन्तरिक्ष / antarikṣa), in fire (होता / hotā), dwells in the center of the Vedic altar for agnihotra (वेदिषद् / vediṣad), in the guest* (अतिथि / atithi), staying at the house (दुरोणसत् / duroṇasat). Being in people (नृषद् / nṛṣad), in good beings (gods, siddhas) (वरसत् / varasat), in harmony with the world (a world order) (ऋतसत् / ṛtasat), who is in space (व्योमसत् / vyomasat), born under water अब्जा / abjā (वडवानल  / vaḍavānala – fire within the ocean), born from the Sun (गो / go) (जा / jā – sunlight). The one who was born from the perfect world order (ऋतजा / ṛtajā), born on the mountains** (अद्रिजा / adrijā), the basis of the world order (ऋतं / ṛtaṃ), the great one from whom the whole universe emerges (बृ्हत् / bṛhat).

Explanation of terms:

* Guests in India are identified with the gods and vice versa, the gods are invoked during a pūjā into the space of the rite, therefore they are also ‘guests’.

** ‘Who is born on the mountains’ – could have many meanings; adri could mean ‘cloud’, the Sun, ‘mountain’, clouds covering a mountain, something related to the number seven. I believe that we are talking about seven sacred rivers, the worship of which is present in all pūjās, they all descend from heaven, these are heavenly rivers, symbols of nectar (amṛta).

Based on this hymn, we can better understand the significance of the ‘haṃsa’ symbol.

Buddhism as a part of Śrīvidyā

There was Gautamma Buddha’s jayanti (a holy birth anniversary) recently. And I remembered that in Śrīvidyā texts I came across some pūjās related to different views or revelations. For example, such as Saura-darśana (reverence for the worldview of the sūrya devotees), ŚaivaŚakta, also Baudha (i.e. Buddhism). In Śrīvidyā, these pūjās are not dominant, they are more likely secondary, however, those who like to worship a number of Buddhist Devatas, they can worship them. In the Śrīvidyārṇava-tantra (Ch.11) there is a description of mantras that are given as bauddhadarśanādhidevatāmantrāḥ (mantras of the main deities of the Buddhist worldview, the tradition). The main Deity there is Tārā (Ugra TārāEkajaṭā Tārā and Nīlasarasvatī Tārā). So, in Śrīvidyā, as in a number of other traditions, there is own version about Buddha and Buddhism, they believe that it is a part of Śaktism, ViśnuismŚaivism or some other teachings. It is more likely that some Buddhists may not like this, however, you can really find stories in the Rudrayāmala of how Vaśiṣṭha received initiation from Buddha to worship the Goddess using the kaulācāra methods. There are other stories and interpretations as alternatives to the widespread ones. All this speaks of the non-stereotyped vision of Indians and the ability to use a variety of practical tools, regardless of different dogmas.

Symbolism of the Chinnamastā image

Today is an interesting day, the birthday of Nṛsiṃha, the incarnation of Viṣṇu, and of the Goddess Chinnamastā. According to the Toḍala-tantra, the Ten Mahāvidiyās are associated with the Ten Viṣṇu avatārs.

What do the images of Chinnamastā and Nṛsiṃha have in common? According to one legend, Nṛsiṃha came to destroy the demon HiraṇyakaśipuHiraṇyakaśipu, performing austerities, asked Brahmā not to be killed either outdoors or indoors, either on the ground or in the air, either by humans or animals. Then Viṣṇu appeared in the form of a half-man and a half-lion, he killed the demon on the porch of his palace, placing him over his knee. So the demon was killed in a way that he did not expect. There is also a continuation of this story,  in which Nṛsiṃha gets drunk on the blood of the killed demon and becomes infected with it. After that, Śiva appears in the form of Śarabheśvara and neutralises the blood of the demon in NṛsiṃhaŚarabheśvara is depicted not  just as a lion, but with wings, i.e. he has a great  ability of manifestation in various  realms, since he is able to  fly through the air. Two Goddesses appear from his wings, one is Pratyaṅgirā and the other is Śūlinī Durgā, both of which are related to the elimination of the negative influence or witchcraft on the practitioner. In fact, Śarabheśvara is nothing more than an enhanced form of Nṛsiṃha. I heard from Indian tantrikas that there are no contradictions here, because Viṣṇu and Śiva are  fused in the form of Harihara.

If you  look at the  image of Chinnamastā, you will see that it stands on Kāma, the God of sex, who is in the intercourse with his companion Rati (Goddess of passion). Thus, Chinnamastā  gets energy from passion, but in its essence, this passion is also self-transformation or sublimation. Chinnamastā chopped off her own head and holds it in her hand, while her head drinks a stream of blood from the body. Two other streams are drunk by her two companions. This is a symbol of the three channels, where Chinnamastā herself symbolises suṣumṇā and the other two Goddesses – the channels iḍā and piṅgala. In other words, Chinnamastā is a certain single reality that is present in all channels, in the power of passion and creation. In fact, it is a single indestructible force within every living form. Her mantra is the same as the Vajravārāhī mantra in Buddhism,  who is also known there as the Goddess Khecharī (mudrā) of white color. The name Chinnamastā in the mantra is “Vajravairocanī” (‘the shining lightning’), and the term vajra  could also mean “indestructibility”.

From my experience of worshiping Chinnamastā, I can say that this form is associated with a deep comprehension of one element or aspect of self, through which it is possible to penetrate into all others. You  kind of unite them and go beyond them. In yoga, for example, you exhale smoothly (rechaka) and automatically comprehend the essence of the correct inhalation (pūraka). Through both of them you comprehend the essence of the retention (kumbhaka). Kumbhaka – from the root कुम्ब् / kumb ( something which encompasses, embodies in itself). Therefore,  a  vessel is often a symbol of female genitals  (yonī), from the root यु / yu, – something which connects, forms and holds in itself. Yonī  could also mean something that is associated with  various forms of birth, all creation comes from it, all forms of life, they dissolve in it. Kumbha or a vessel is a symbol of the body, both individual and the body of the universe, all life (amṛta) and the whole universe is in it. A vessel is a symbol of the unity of external and internal space (vyoman), the void inside  and outside a vessel is one in its essence. Therefore, there is one single reality in all our bodies. We  could say that these are parts: inhalation, exhalation, retention, like other parts of yoga, besides prāṇāyāmaāsanapratyāhāradhāraṇāyamaniyama, etc. All of them are one single sādhanā, one yoga, like other yogas (rājakarmajñānalaya). Unfortunately, people have separated all these methods now, although they have one goal and one reality. Once you comprehend one aspect well, you automatically come to the comprehension of its inextricable connection with  all others. Chinnamastā is a very paradoxical symbol, it is a symbol of cutting off all worldly things and at the same time it is a symbol of presence in everything. It is the transcendental, indestructible,  radiant emptiness that generates an abundance of life forms and is present in each such form.  Surely, she is associated with the complete absence of oneself in something, but also with the complete presence of oneself there. Chinnamastā is a symbol of spiritual death in which there is no conditioning by births, she is also a symbol of the fullness of life and the infinite wealth of life. Fear of death and fear of life are usually related. A yogi is one who dies for the world and through this death he is resurrected to a new vision of life in all its beauty and fullness. In this regard, Chinnamastā is a part of the Kālī pantheon (Kālīkūla), because Kālī is connected with time, which is divided into parts, into segments. The term Kālī is feminine from kāla (‘time’), which is  masculine.  It comes from the root कल् (kal),  which is the first gaṇa (group of roots) of ten in Pāṇini, and means सङ्ख्यान (saṅkhyāna – “to count”) , and कला (kalā) is from the same root – “a part of something  general, art, etc.” She teaches to control prāṇa, and through the management of prāṇa leads to going beyond time or death.

 What happens when the granthis are untied?

A practitioner experiences the nature of Brahma (the creative power), the power of material diversity and countless channels, the connection between them. An ordinary person gets entangled in these material connections, while the yogi “sneak out” of them. In his heart he comprehends the nature of Nārāyaṇa. Nara means “a man”, that implies our connections with people, human attachments, these are emotional connections with people too. When we are “released” by a variety of bindings, the knot untied. Rudra is associated with liberation, with various experiences of the subtle level, with “spiritual ideas” and identification of oneself with them. That is, the idea of liberation is not liberation itself; thoughts of emptiness are not emptiness itself. There is a suitable definition in Russian Orthodoxy, I have come across, “falling into falsehood.” If a practitioner leaves clinging to such self-identifications, then he passes, frees this knots (granthis) and receives a living spiritual experience. This living realisation, associated with the sahasrāra cakra, is easier to experience in practice than to talk about it. Nevertheless, my experience shows that for full development you need a perfect guide, a Master. The gates to the sahasrāra open through the Guru-cakra that precedes it.

 The meaning of the circle principle (the cakra)

According to the Pāṇini’s grammar, the term cakra comes from the root कृkṛ, meaning “movement”. Abhinavagupta, in the Tantrāloka (āhnika 19, ślokas 106-107), explains that the term is really from the root kṛ, but it also means vikāsa (expansion), tṛpti (satisfaction), paśotkartanātkṛtiśaktitaḥ (what cuts off the fetters and what is the power of activity). Further, he says that the term is connected with the root कस् / kas or कः / kaḥ, which is translated as “who,” by which denote Ātman, Brahman, light and much more in different sources. Abhinavagupta chooses the meaning of light, pleasure.

Based on these sources, I would deduce the following: kaḥ is Brahman or Ātman, and , which means “movement”, is Śakti. Since Brahman is infinite in nature, no matter what energies emanate from Him, they close on Him forming reverse or circular motions. This also has the principle of movement, repetition – japa in Sanskrit. Since this is natural for Śakti and Brahman, it can be called ajapa-japa. The circle symbolises infinity, it evenly embraces all sides, without emphasis on any one relative to the rest, hence probably, the principle of vairāgya, or liberation from fetters (pāśa) comes. Uniformity is possible only when there is a center in a circle or bindu, which means Ātman. Accordingly, if you take the cakras in the subtle body, then these are different spheres or levels of comprehension of Ātman. For example, Gorakṣanāth, in the Gorakṣa-vacana-saṃgraha (93-100), gives the practice of comprehending the Ātman in each cakra of your body. Not only cakras are arranged by the circle principle, but also channels of the subtle body, the movement of prāṇa in the iḍā and piṅgala occurs in a spiral. The circular movements are harmonious, they generate and accumulate prāṇa, while all “broken” and “ragged” ones (that are reflection of weak control and awareness) – destroy and waste power. Therefore, the cakra or cakras are essential elements of our spiritual development.

Where does the number of 84 āsanas come from?

The idea of ​​84 āsanas, which is often found in yoga texts, is based on the worship of 84 nāthayogis. Each of these 84 nāthas is responsible for the evolution of one lakh of living beings (100,000). When you follow the yoga path, you develop the psychophysical, spiritual purity in yourself, that you radiate into space. By doing your practice you help not only yourself, but also your close ones. Souls reincarnate in different forms until they become perfect yogis, the symbolism of 84 āsanas is based on this principle. The most important thing here is to understand that āsana is not just a physical process, but also a psychophysical one. The purpose of many āsanas is to be able to stay stable in the position of siddha (siddhāsana). Generally, it is the ability to stay in a meditative posture for three hours, to hold it easily, so that you can meditate, remaining in the position, on something sublime and pure in it.

Symbolism of yoni-mudra in yoga

There is a practice in yoga in which jñānendriyas are overlapped with the fingers of both hands, it is called yoni-mudrā. A yogi enters into pratyāhāra and immerses into  himself through this practice. The term ‘yoni‘ comes from the root yu, which may indicate several qualities. The first one from the adādiḥ class, means miśraṇa (join together), and the second from the kryādiḥ class, meaning bandhana (binding). That is something that connects male and female fluids, that holds and carries the fetus. The term ‘mudrā‘ also has a similar meaning, from the root mud, which happens in two classes: the first is curādiḥ class, meaning saṃsarga (mixing, combining) and the second is the bhvādiḥ class, meaning harṣa (rejoicing). This is what connects the two polarities: consciousness (meaning) and the object that displays it, as well as something that gives joy. Thus, any practice that connects you with the essence and brings joy can be considered as mudrā, it can be a mantra, a dhyāna, even āsana and prāṇāyāma, being directed to your essential predestination.

In India there is such a famous place of the Goddess as Kāmākhyā-pīṭha, where the Goddess is revered in the form of a female genital organ (yoni). All her images in the form of ten Mahāvidiyās, including the central place – the Kāmākhyā temple, have sanctuaries that are on the surface of the earth and below them, in the form of caves, that are underground. Underground is the bosom of the Mother Goddess, the bosom is considered as the essence of any Goddess, in many yantras she is presented in the form of a bindu and a triangle in the center. If you go into the main temple of Kāmākhyā, going down the stairs, you will plunge into the darkness with only the dim light of the lamps. Merging into the darkness, you are going through the experience of death, as if leaving the sanctuary, you are kind of returning to life, already updated. All the essential elements of these tantric symbols, in the form of veneration of yoni (yoni-pūjā) are also reflected in yoga practice. You are immersed in yourself during that practice, you recognise the nature of the Mother Goddess in your body in the form of Kuṇḍalinī-śakti. Also, being renewed, you will know the true self as ātman. The Mātṛkābheda-tantra says “janmasthānaṃ mahāyantraṃ” that the female reproductive organ is the Great Yantra, although the term janmasthāna can also be associated with the phallic symbol. In fact, yoni and liṅgam both are a manifestation of the bindu, also of one triangle, but only they change to male or female symbols when turned over. This is what the Bhagavad Gītā says about yoni:

सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः सम्भवन्ति याः।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता ।।14.4।।

sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ sambhavanti yāḥ। 
tāsāṃ brahma mahadyonirahaṃ bījapradaḥ pitā ।।14.4।।

O Kaunteya, in whatever (yāḥ) yoni (sarvayoniṣu) entities (mūrtayaḥ) do not appear (sambhavanti), the yoni for them is the Great Brahman (tāsāṃ brahma mahat yoniḥ), while I am the Father (pitā) giving (pradaḥ) seed (bīja).

This śloka from the Gītā identifies the yoni with the Supreme Brahman. From the foregoing, it can be summarised that yogic mudra is a tantric symbol, it gives knowledge of birth and death (frees from rebirth, i.e. grants mukti), leads to the merging of the soul with the God (Brahman).

How does the whole Sanskrit alphabet come from praṇava?

One example is the text Āgamarahasyam (Aṣṭamaḥ paṭalaḥ, 449 – 462), according to which praṇava is divided into five mātras: म् and two more – bindu (which is the concentration of sound vibration) and nāda (the spreading of this subtle concentration). Further, each of these mātras is split into a certain number of energy rays (kalā), each of these rays is associated with one or another Sanskrit varṇa, also this five appears in the form of pañcakāraṇeśvara, the five manifestations of Śiva (Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Rudra, Īśvara and Sadāśiva). According to the Candrajñānāgamaḥ and some other texts, five syllables of the mantraNamaḥ Śivāya’ and five kāraṇeśvaras associated with them appear from these five mātras. Let’s analyse this in detail.

The first mātra / a is connected with Brahmā, the syllable of the pañcākṣara mantra / na and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

कं kaṃ sṛṣṭi – the power of creation, खं khaṃ ṛddhi – the power of development, गं gaṃ smṛti – the power of memory, घं ghaṃ medhā – wisdom, ङं ṅaṃ kānti – brilliance, चं caṃ lakṣmī – success in achieving the goal, छं chaṃ dyuti – glow, जं jaṃ sthirā – stability, झं jhaṃ sthiti – existence, ञं ñaṃ siddhi – perfection.

The second mātra / u is connected with Viṣṇu, the syllable of the pañcākṣara mantra : / maḥ and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

टं ṭaṃ jarā – the power of longevity, ठं ṭhaṃ naṃpālinī – the power of protection, डं ḍaṃ śānti – peace, ढं ḍhaṃ aiśvari – control, णं ṇaṃ rati – pleasure, तं taṃ kāmikā – passion, थं thaṃ varadā – power to bestow boon,

दं daṃ hlādinī – happiness, धं dhaṃ prīti – attractiveness, नं naṃ dīrghā – prevalence.

The third mātra म् / m is connected with Rudra, the syllable of pañcākṣara शि / śi and the following 10 kalās and akṣaras:

पं paṃ tīkṣā – sharpness, फं phaṃ raudrī – ferociousness of expression, बं baṃ bhayā – power to instil fear, भं bhaṃ nidrā – rest in a dream, मं maṃ tandrā – state of coma, यं yaṃ kṣut – hunger, रं raṃ krodhinī – power of anger laṃ kriyā – movement, वं vaṃ utkārī – rise, शं śaṃ mṛtyu – death.

The fourth mātra is associated with bindu and with Īśvara, the syllable of pañcākṣara वा / , as well as four kalās, which are manifested in the colour of energies, and akṣaras:

षं ṣaṃ pītā – yellow, सं saṃ śvetā – white, हं haṃ kṣaṃaruṇā – red, क्षं kṣaṃ asitā – dark.

The fifth mātra is associated with nāda and Sadāśiva, the syllable of pañcākṣara / ya and the following 16 kalās and akṣaras:

अं aṃ nivṛtti – cessation of activities, आं āṃ pratiṣṭhā – establishment, इं iṃ vidyā – knowledge, ईं īṃ śānti – peace, उं uṃ indhikā – substance for sacrifice, ऊं ūṃ dīpikā – light, ऋं ṛṃ recikā – devastation, ऋृं ṛṛṃ mocikā – liberation, लृं lṛṃ parā – transcendence, लॄं lṝṃ sūkṣmā – subtlety, एं eṃ sūkṣmāmṛtā – subtle, not affected by death, ऐं aiṃ jñānāmṛtā – cognition of immortality, ओं oṃ āpyāyanī – fullness, अं aṃ vyomarūpā – emptiness, अः aḥ anantā – lack of limit (infinity).

Reflections on the origin of the name of the three bandhas

Why do the three famous bandhas, that are often used in prāṇāyāma, have the following names: jālandhara-bandhauḍḍiyāna-bandhamūla-bandha?

Personally, I believe that these names in haṭhayoga, like many other things, could come from tantrism. The aim of these bandhas in yoga is to unite the prāṇas within the suṣumṇā channel, which leads to the control of prāṇa and consciousness (i.e. contemplation). There are four famous śaktipīṭhas in tantrism, such as kāmarūpājālandharauḍḍiyāna and pūrṇāgiri. Many tantras describe them not only as geographical places in India and as those that are in the central triangle of yantras, but also as located in our body, in various cakras. For example, kāmarūpā, which is associated with Satī’s yoni (one of the main places for tantra practitioners) is located in Guwahati of Assam State. In a way, this is the main place for tantrikas and śaktas, so when we say ‘mūla‘, we can translate this as “root” and as “main.” According to Yoga-cūḍāmaṇyupaniṣad (7), Gorakṣa-śatakam (10), Sidhda-sidhdānta-padhdati (2-1) and a number of other texts, this pīṭha in our body is in the area of ​​mūlādhāra-cakra. This fully corresponds to what associated with mūla-bandha.

Take other examples with pithas, for example, in Kaulajñānanirṇaya (8.20-22) jālandhara-pīṭha is located in the root cakra, although according to the SSP, it is located in the head region. In any case, jālandhara-bandha is what directs upward the flow of prāṇa going into the cakras, like uḍḍiyāna-bandha, which means the movement of prāṇa in suṣumṇā and upwards. Obviously, it is connected with uḍḍiyāna-pīṭha, regardless of the fact that different texts have it in different ways. This special pīṭha in tantrism, the center of any yantra, is also venerated by the Gurus, from whom comes the tradition in which this practice is used. For Buddhists, this is also a very significant place where many great masters came from. If we talk about ājñā-cakra, then it means “following the will of the Guru“, his transmission. But, for this we must direct ourselves from the bottom up to him. This is the dissolution of their lower nature in the Divine, thereby sublimating this nature. Of course, when we do uḍḍiyāna-bandha, we work on the entire abdomen, lifting prāṇa up through suṣumṇā. The fourth, pūrṇāgiri-pīṭha, is also located differently according to different texts, somewhere in the crown of the head, somewhere in anāhata-cakra, etc. It means the completeness arising from the fusion of different energies. Usually, pīṭhas in tantrism, as sacred places in India, are associated with the performance of some sacred processes in our body. If we say this in relation to yoga, then our fragmented, imperfect vital energy (asiddha-prāṇa) becomes perfect (siddha-prāṇa) when it makes a “pilgrimage” to different areas within suṣumṇā. Thus, we are immersed in dhyāna within ourselves.